Libya’s political transition has been disrupted by armed non-state groups and threatened by the indecision and infighting of interim leaders. After an armed uprising ended the 40-plus year rule of Muammar al Qadhafi in late 2011, interim authorities proved unable to form a stable government, address pressing security issues, reshape the country’s public finances, or create a viable framework for post-conflict justice and reconciliation.
In 2016, continued political instability and ongoing armed conflict in Libya has led to deteriorating living conditions and reduced access to essential services for a significant part of the country. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) remain one of the most vulnerable population groups as they seek out temporary shelter and scarce livelihood opportunities in urban centres, many without access to basic services. The power vacuum that gave way to the rise of armed groups in Libya, and the ongoing violence has caused thousands more Libyans to flee their homes in search of protection and assistance. In February 2016, while the political situation in Libya remains tumultuous, new patterns of displacement are occurring, with a growing trend of return reported in the East.
Over 435 000 people in Libya have been forcibly displaced, almost doubling the number reported in 2014. Humanitarian organizations face serious difficulties to reach communities and vulnerable IDP families affected by the ongoing violence in the country.
Health and protection needs of the affected population stand out in terms of scope, scale and severity. This is the result of major shortages of essential medicines and a debilitated primary healthcare system, which have led to an increase in serious illnesses and disease. The conflict has restricted access to basic services, led to forced displacement and impacted people’s safety and security. The displaced are the most vulnerable due to limited coping capacity and loss of assets, particularly displaced women, children, the elderly and those with low economic means. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants are also considered some of the most vulnerable, due to their exposed risk to discrimination and exploitation based on their status. According to OCHA, the most severe needs in terms of geographic areas are those of affected people in the east and south of the country.
The worsening economic situation and political crises have exacerbated the vulnerability of the people in Libya, where the main source of household income remains salaries from the state. In the preliminary findings of the MSNA conducted by UN agencies, 71 per cent of households reported that their incomes have either remained the same or decreased. Given the protracted nature of the current crisis, the primary objective is to improve resilience of affected communities. This entails building capacity at national and local levels to generate the evidence base needed to monitor the impacts of crisis, to plan key interventions as needed to address humanitarian and early recovery priorities, and to support the recovery of local economies and rehabilitation of critical damaged infrastructures and public services.
The Libya Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) is based on a number of needs assessments conducted in 2016 and updated in 2018, including the UN inter-agency Multi-Sector Needs Assessment (MSNA), sector needs and gap analysis based on information from ongoing humanitarian operations in Libya and available secondary sources. In areas where conflict and insecurity impeded access to affected people, there are some significant gaps in information in terms of the scale and scope of humanitarian needs. There are also information gaps for some of the sectors, especially where national information collection and reporting systems are weak, such as for protection. (OCHA)
Due to the security context, the majority of the humanitarian intervention in Libya are being managed remotely from Tunis.
The Medical Coordinator is responsible for the success of the mission’s medical strategy and the quality of current and future medical programmes at the definition, implementation and evaluation phases. He/She provides support to programme managers (Field Co and PM – field officers) who report to them on the basis of a dotted-line relationship.